Parasites

The word “parasites” is used in two senses.  Everything living on you or in you, not just to perch, but to take its food from you is a parasite.  Mo matter what its size, it can be called a parasite.

 But in some way the big worms need to be distinguished from the medium-sized amoebae, the even smaller bacteria and the smallest of all, viruses.  So often the term parasite is reserved for the bigger things, from amoebae on up.  The word parasite here will be used in both ways, you can easily guess what is meant.

 Parasitic worms are divided into roundworms and flatworms.  Roundworms are round like earthworms even though they may be as thin as hairs (threadworms, filaria) or microscopically small (like Trichinella).  Flatworms are more like leeches.  They have a way to attach themselves sometimes with the head (scolex) like tapeworms, sometimes with a special sucker like flukes.

  • Worms
  • Flatworms
  • Roundworms
  • Tapeworms
  • Flukes
  • Threadworms
  • Pinworms
  • Hookworms

Worms parasites go through stages of development that can look very, very different from the adult.   Roundworm like Ascaris (common cat and dog roundworm), are simplest.  The eggs are swallowed by licking or eating a bit of filth.  They hatch into a tiny larva.  The larva treks to the lungs.  You cough it up and swallow it. Meanwhile it has molted a few times.  It then crawls to the intestine where it becomes an adult, shedding eggs in your stool.

Worms usually have preferred locations.  The favorite organ for Dirofilaria (dog heartworm) is the heart (even human heart). Sometimes the rules can be broken, it also can live in other organs, too, if they are sufficiently polluted with solvents, metals and other toxins.

Flatworms like tapeworms are much more complicated in their life history.  You could eat the eggs accidentally with dirt.  After hatching, the tiny larva burrows into its favorite organ.  Your body encases it with a cyst.  The white blood cells have been taught never to attack your body….and the cyst case is your body!  So the tapeworms stage has safe residence for some time.  If you are a meat eater, you could eat such a cyst if it happens to be lodged in the meat you are eating.  Your teeth break it apart as you crunch.  The little larva is swallowed and tries to attach itself to your intestine with its head.   Then it grows longer by making segment after segment.  the segments with their eggs leave with the bowel contents.  It is very common to see dog tapeworm of the small variety in their human family (it does not mean that you need to kill the dogs, it means that you need to deworm them properly and regularly.

Flatworms like flukes are also very complicated.  The eggs, passed out with bowel contents were not meant to be eaten as such.  They were meant to hatch in a pond where snails and minnows eat them.  The larva grows up in these new “secondary” hosts.  Later, the snail sheds them and they attach themselves to foliage near the pond.  They over-winter in a tough metacercarial cyst (it is like unbreakable cyst, it only dissolves when reaches the duodenum and in the intestine lining start developing).  An unsuspecting browsing animal now eats them.  They come out of their metacercarial cyst as a small adult and quickly attach themselves to the intestine with a sucher.  They now have “safe haven” and can go about maturing and laying eggs.

For common flukes are:   human intestinal flukes, human liver flukes, sheep liver fluke, pancreatic fluke of cattle.  Do not let the terms sheep and cattle mislead you.  They are all found in humans.

 

 

 

To prevent becoming infected or reinfected with worms in general:

  • Bathe after waking up
  • Wash your pajamas and bed sheets often
  • Wash your hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or changing diapers
  • Brush your nails
  • Change your underwear every day
  • Avoid nail biting
  • Avoid scratching the anal area
  • Take medication often (every 4 months or 6 months)
  • Treat your pets with medication often as well
  • walking barefoot in warm climates where sanitation is poor
  • Watch your food.  Keep the Hygiene.

The Worst Parasite

Fasciolopsis buskii is the fluke (flatworm) that is found in every case of cancer, HIV infection, Alzheirmer’s, Crohn’s disease, Kaposi’s, endometriosis, and in many people without these diseases.  Its life cycle involves six different stages (normal life cycle).

 

 

1.-  Egg :  Expelled with bowel movement onto soil.  Washed by rain into ponds.

2.- Miracidia:  Hatches from egg in water.  Has cilia, can swim vigorously and must find intermediate snail host in one to two hours or may be too exhausted to invade.

3.- Redia:  Develop inside miracidia as little balls until expelled.  Those are “mother” redia, and each one bears “daughter” redia for up to 8 months, all still inside the snail, and living on the fluids in the lymphatic spaces.  Similarly, daughter redia are continually developing cercaria.

4.- Cercaria:  Have a tail, use it to exit from snail and swim to a plant.  If the snail is feeding on a plant, cercaria can latch onto plant with sucker mouth and start to encyst (from a “cocoon”) within minutes.  Tail breaks off and swims away to dissolve.

5.- Metacercaria:  Two-walled cyst.  the outer wall is very sticky.  but as you eat the plant it is stuck to, the least pressure will break it, leaving the cyst in the mouth.  The “almost unbreakable” inner cyst wall protects it from chewing, and the keratin-like coat prevents digestion by stomach juices.  However when it reaches the duodenum, contact with intestinal juices dissolves away the cyst-wall and frees it.  it then fastens itself to the intestinal lining and begins to develop into an adult.

6.-  Adult:  Lives in your intestine and can produce 1000 eggs per bowel movement and live many years.

Note that the adult is the only stage that “normally” lives in the human (and then only in the intestine).  Fasciolopsis depends on a snail, called a secondary host, for part of its life cycle.  But when your body has solvents in it, the other five stages can develop in you!, and we get solvents from food, it is not that difficult, specially with the processed food business of these days.  If Propyl alcohol is the solvent, the intestinal fluke is invited to use another organ as a secondary host, this organ will become cancerous.  If Benzene is the solvent, the intestinal fluke uses the thymus for its secondary host.  Wood alcohol invites pancreatic flukes to use the pancreas as a secondary host. This leads to pancreatic dysfunction which we call diabetes.  If xylene (or toluene) are the solvents, It is seen any of 4 flukes using the brain as a secondary host.  If methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) metyl  butyl ketone (MBK) are the solvents, the uterus becomes a secondary host and endometriosis a likely result.  The only alcohol safe for human beings is Ethyl Alcohol or Ethanol.

This is a new kind of parasitism, based on pollution.  These diseases caused by fluke stages in inappropriate locations is called Fluke disease.

Flukes

Fluke, also called blood fluke or trematode, any member of the invertebrate class Trematoda (phylum Platyhelminthes), a group of parasitic flatworms that probably evolved from free-living forms millions of years ago. There are more than 10,000 species of flukes. They occur worldwide and range in size from about 5 millimetres (0.2 inch) to several centimetres; most do not exceed 100 millimetres (4 inches) in length.

 

Liver fluke (Fasciola hepatica)

 

Flukes parasitize members of all vertebrate classes but most commonly parasitize fish, frogs, and turtles; they also parasitize humans, domestic animals, and invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans. Some are external parasites (ectoparasites); some attach themselves to internal organs (endoparasites); others are semi-external, attaching themselves to the lining of the mouth, to the gills, or to the cloaca (the end of the digestive tract). Some attack a single host, while others require two or more hosts.

The symmetrical body of a fluke is covered with a noncellular cuticle. Most are flattened and leaflike or ribbonlike, although some are stout and circular in cross section. Muscular suckers on the ventral (bottom) surface, hooks, and spines are used for attachment. The body is solid and filled with a spongy connective tissue (mesenchyme) that surrounds all the body organs. A circulatory system is absent. The digestive system consists of a simple sac with a mouth either at the anterior end or in the middle of the ventral surface.  An anus is usually absent, but some species have one or two anal pores. The nervous system consists of a pair of anterior ganglia, or nerve centres, and usually three pairs of lengthwise nerve cords.

Most species are hermaphroditici.e., functional reproductive organs of both sexes occur in the same individual. In some, however, the sexes are separate. Most species pass through egg, larval, and mature stages 

Blood flukes occur in most types of vertebrates; three species attack humans: the urinary blood fluke (Schistosoma haematobium), the intestinal blood fluke (S. mansoni), and the Oriental blood fluke (S. japonicum). The human diseases caused by them are known as schistosomiasis (bilharziasis); they affect millions of persons, particularly in Africa and east Asia.

The urinary blood fluke (S. haematobium), which lives in the veins of the urinary bladder, occurs mainly in Africa, southern Europe, and the Middle East.   Eggs, laid in the veins, break through the vein wall into the bladder and are voided during urination.  The larval fluke develops in the body of a snail (chiefly of the genera Bulinus and Physopsis), the intermediate host.  The mature larva makes its way into the body of the final host, man, through the skin or the mouth.

The intestinal blood fluke (S. mansoni), which lives in the veins around the large and small intestines, occurs primarily in Africa and in northern South America.  The eggs pass from the host with the feces.  The larva enters the body of a snail, the intermediate host, and returns to a human host through the skin.

The Oriental blood fluke, which occurs primarily in China, Japan, Taiwan, the East Indies, and the Philippine Islands, differs from S. mansoni and S. haematobium in that it may attack vertebrates other than man, including various domestic animals, rats, and mice.  Snails of the genus Oncomelania are the intermediate host.  The adult occurs in the veins of the small intestine.  Some eggs are carried in the bloodstream to various organs and may cause a variety of symptoms, including enlargement of the liver.  Human hosts may die from severe infestations.

Flukes of detrimental economic significance to man include the widely occurring giant liver fluke of cattle (Fasciola hepatica) and the Chinese, or Oriental, liver fluke (Opisthorchis sinensis, or Clonorchis sinensis). F. hepatica causes the highly destructive “liver rot” in sheep and other domestic animals.  Man may become infested with this fluke by eating uncooked vegetables.

The Chinese liver fluke infests a variety of mammals, including man.  In addition to the snail as an intermediate host, the Chinese liver fluke infests fish as a second intermediate host before passing to the final host.   The cat liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus, which may also infest man as the final host, also requires a freshwater snail (Bithynia leachii) and a carp as its secondary intermediate hosts.

Flukes Disease

Flukes or flatworms, have a complex life cycle with many stages,  Although sheep, cattle, pigs and humans can be “natural” hosts to the adult stage, the other stages are meant to develop outdoors and in secondary hosts.  When fluke stages other than the adult are able to develop in us,   is called fluke disease.   Or when an adult that “normally belongs” to another species is able to develop in us,  it is also called fluke disease.  Or even with adult flukes with their “normal host”, when they move from the organ that they “normally colonize” to other organs in the body, it is also called fluke disease.   Four fluke varieties engaged in this extra territorial pursuit are the intestinal fluke, sheep liver fluke, pancreatic fluke, and human liver fluke.

As you can see from their names, scientists have studied them well, and know exactly which animal  are the “normal” hosts, and which organ in that animal is the adult fluke’s “normal” home.  Fluke disease is when any of these is “wrong”.   Flukes don’t have eyes to see with or legs to walk with, so how can they find and travel to the organ they want in the middle of your body?   Scientists do not know for sure.  However it’s concluded from many scientific studies that the liver fluke, Fasciola, for example, has no trouble seeking out and colonizing the liver.

Here are some examples of what can happen when flukes go “wrong”:

  • Adult flukes (any of the four mentioned) in the uterine wall causes cramping and bleeding when it is not menstrual period time.  If an adult crosses the wall to the inside and then manages to get out through the fallopian tubes to the abdominal cavity it takes some endometrium with it causing endometriosis.
  • If adults develop in the kidneys, it can cause lupus or Hodgkin’s disease.
  • If adults complete their cycle in the brain, Alzherimer’s disease and multiple sclerosis result.
  • If the intestinal fluke (Fasciolopsis buskii) becomes adult in the liver it causes cancers of many (hundreds) kinds.
  • If the pancreatic fluke completes its cycle in the pancreas, it leads to diabetes.  This is not an example of flukes straying into the wrong organs, but of having its stages reproducing where they never could before. 
  • If flukes develop in the thymus, immunity is lowered.  If it happens to be the intestinal fluke,  HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is released there.  In turn, HIV invades other tissues, like penis and vagina.
  • These four flukes can also invade the muscles, causing dystrophies.

Considering the size of these flukes (adults are easily visible), it is not surprising that they can quickly lay waste a human’s organs.  Yet a human is big and makes a valiant effort to kill the stages, block access to tissues and otherwise battle them.

But only the human’s intelligence can be counted on to defeat them.  The intelligent approach is to discover what enables these mighty monsters to do their reproduction in our bodies instead of the pond with its snails/minnow secondary hosts.

Flukes Not Alone

There are other families of parasites.  The roundworms and tapeworms are gaining ground too.  Are they associated with solvents? Or with yet undiscovered factors?  Are they changing their life cycles to take advantage of our lowered immunity?  These are important questions.

Here are some examples of what can happen when flukes go wrong:

Adult flukes (intestinal flukes, sheep liver fluke, pancreatic fluke, and human liver fluke) in the uterine wall causes cramping and bleeding when it is not menstrual period, and eventually causes endometriosis.  If it develops in the kidneys it can cause lupus and Hodgkin’s disease, if it develops in the brain it can cause Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis condition, If it develops in the pancreas it can cause diabetes, and so on.

For these reasons we need to deworm ourselves often, and specially our pets since we live with them and we can pick up their bugs easily.

Flukes and Solvents

the explanation I fave found for two of these flukes is the presence of solvents in our bodies.   The presence of isopropyl alcohol is associated in  100% of cancer cases (over 500 cases) with reproduction of the intestinal fluke stages in a variety of organs causing cancers in these organs.

The presence of  benzene is associated in 100% of HIV cases (over 100 cases) with reproduction of intestinal fluke stages in the thymus.

The presence of wood alcohol is associated in 100% of diabetes cases (over 50 cases) with reproduction of pancreatic fluke stages in the pancreas.

The presence of xylene and toluene is associated in 100% of Alzheimer cases (over 10 cases) with the reproduction of intestinal fluke stages in the brain.

Much more work needs to be done to examine the relationship between fluke reproduction, the solvent and the chosen organ.  But it seems probable that the solvent allows it all to happen.  And our intelligence, to save us, must find a solution.

Stopping use of these solvents seems to be the most urgent advice.  Finding which foods and products are polluted with them is the first step.  

In Hulda Clark’s observations, when the big sources of solvents are stopped, the body’s levels go back to zero.  In other words, the minute amounts that we inhale here and there do not accumulate to the point of serious damage.  We have to eat, drink or absorb them on a daily basis to injure us!   So where can they come from?

The sources of benzene and propyl alcohol that  found are given in “Pollution” section under the title of “solvents pollution”.  The sources of wood alcohol are not as well known, but include commercial beverages, cold cereals, artificial sweetener, vitamins, and drugs.   Other solvents are even less studied. But a pattern is emerging:  foods and products that require sterilization of bottles and machinery to fill these bottles are polluted with propyl alcohol or wood alcohol.  Foods and products containing flavourings or oils are polluted with benzene. 

There are many other flukes and many other diseases.  Are there other fluke/solvent/disease trios?  Has fluke disease been going on for a long time or is it a recent phenomenon?  Certainly cancer is 100 years old, so is the use of propyl alcohol.   Diabetes is quite old as an illness, too, and so is its associated solvent, wood alcohol,   But HIV, AIDS and Alzherimer’s are recent diseases.  Should we conclude that benzene, xylene and toluene were used much less in the past?

Fluke diseases could be eradicated with some simple actions:  monitoring of solvents in foods, feeds and products.  Hopefully, this will begin.  It is in the interest of the consumer to have her or his own independent way of monitoring too.  Try to reduce the amount of products and food with solvents.

Threadworms live for about 5-6 weeks in the gut and then die. Before they die, the female worms lay tiny eggs around the back passage (anus). This tends to occur at night when you are warm and still in bed.  The eggs are too small to see without a microscope, but cause itching around the anus due to accompanying irritating mucus.  You then scratch around the anus to relieve the itching. You often do this without realising while you are asleep.  When you scratch, eggs get on to your fingers and under your nails. You may then swallow some eggs if you put a finger into your mouth.

Also, Threadworm eggs can survive for up to two weeks outside the body. They fall off the skin around the anus and can fall on to bedding, clothes, etc. They can then get wafted in the air as you change clothes, bedding, etc, and become part of the dust in a home. Some eggs may settle on food or toothbrushes. So, children may swallow some eggs at first by playing with other children who have eggs on their fingers, or from food, drink, toothbrushes, or dust that has been contaminated with Threadworm eggs.

Any eggs that you swallow then hatch and grow into adult worms in the gut. So a cycle of Threadworm infection can go on and on. Rarely, Threadworms in the nose have been discovered. Some people want to know how many Threadworms live in your gut. The answer is that the number varies from person to person.

Pinworms

Pinworms are small parasites that can live in the colon and rectum. You get them when you swallow their eggs. The eggs hatch inside your intestines. While you sleep, the female pinworms leave the intestines through the anus and lay eggs on nearby skin.

Pinworms spread easily. When people who are infected touch their anus, the eggs attach to their fingertips. They can spread the eggs to others directly through their hands, or through contaminated clothing, bedding, food, or other articles. The eggs can live on household surfaces for up to 2 weeks.

The infection is more common in children. Many people have no symptoms at all. Some people feel itching around the anus or vagina. The itching may become intense, interfere with sleep, and make you irritable.

Your health care provider can diagnose pinworms infection by finding the eggs. A common way to collect the eggs is with a sticky piece of clear tape. Mild infections may not need treatment. If you do need medicine, everyone in the household should take it.

 

Hookworms

Hookworms.JPG

Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite in the roundworm group.  Initially there may be itching and a rash at the site of infection. There may be no symptoms in those only affected by a few worms. In those infected by many worms there may be abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and feeling tired.  The mental and physical development of children may be affected.  Anemia may result.

Two species of hookworms most commonly infect humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus.  Hookworm eggs occur in the stool of infected people.  If these end up in the environment, they can hatch into immature worms, which can then penetrate the skin.  One type can also be spread through contaminated food.  Risk factors include walking barefoot in warm climates where sanitation is poor.  Diagnosis is by examination of a stool sample with a microscope.

The disease can be prevented on an individual level by not walking barefoot in areas where the disease is common.  At a population level, decreasing outdoor defecation, not using feces as fertilizer, and mass deworming is effective.  Treatment is typically with the medications albendazole or mebendazole for one to three days.  Iron supplements may be needed in those with anemia.

Hookworm infected about 428 million in 2015.  Heavy infections can occur in both children and adults but are less common in adults.  It is rarely fatal.  Hookworm infection is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis and classified as a neglected tropical disease.